Fruit opening at maturity by a vertical split.
Seeds c.1mm diameter, spherical or nearly so, apparently truncate at the aril end.  Testa black, dull, fully or partially covered with a brownish film.  Hilum round; aril protruding only slightly.
Species: amerhauseri, andreae, baldianum, berchtii, bruchii, calochlorum, capillaense, erinaceum, gibbosum ssp gibbosum,
gibbosum ssp borthii, kieslingii, kroeleinii, neuhuberi, reductum ssp reductum, reductum ssp leeanum, robustum,
schroederianum, striglianum, taningaense,uebelmannianum.
G. kieslingii STO 180, seeds from Franz Strigl
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On this page : calochlorum, capillaense, erinaceum
Gymnocalycium calochlorum
This plant is sometimes seen under the name G. proliferum, although it is generally accepted now that this is a synonym.  Backeberg once had it as a separate species, but later changed his mind.  It is also similar to G. capillaense, differing by its smaller body and usually more numerous and finer spines (GC).  The two species have been reported growing together in at least two localities.
Body is depressed-globose, 4x6 cm.  Ribs 9-11.  No central spine.  Up to 9 radials about 9mm, pink at first, later grey-white.  According to NCL, the flower is usually solitary.  Flower colour is pale pink with darker midstripe and grey-pink tip, and throat of rose-carmine.
Of the plants illustrated here, two had the name G. proliferum on the label, and two had G. calochlorum.
G. calochlorum - no enlargement
from an unidentified blog
Gymnocalycium capillaense
Gymnocalycium capillaense
synonyms sutterianum and deeszianum (Aymeric de Barmon)
Synonyms sutterianum and deeszianum are deservedly synonyms; they are virtually indistinguishable from capillaense.
capillaense is a smallish plant growing to around 10cm with 8-10 ribs.  It has no centrals and a variable number of radials (3-7, but usually 5).  Flower is as illustrated.  Note the wine-red throat.
Gymnocalycium capillaense
Gymnocalycium erinaceum (Aymeric de Barmon)
Up to about 5.5 cm, a small plant with 12 ribs.  Usually 1 or 2 centrals, and 7-9 radials.  Flowers white with carmine throat. 
Gymnocalycium erinaceum